The Specificity of genocide intent

Sandeep Menon Nandakumar1.

  1. BA LLB (Hons), NUALS, LLM (Cusat), LLM (Exeter, UK), Assistant Professor (Sr.), VIT Law School, Chennai []
  2. Steven R. Ratner & Jason S. Abrams, Accountability for Human Rights Atrocities in International Law: Beyond the Nuremburg Legacy (1st edn, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1997) 27 []
  3. Article II of the Convention available at http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/genocide.htm []
  4. Peter Quayle, ‘Unimaginable Evil: The Legislative Limitations of the Genocide Convention’ (2005) 5 Int’l Crim. L. Rev. 363, 367 []
  5. Konjit Gomar, ‘Heartbreak in Darfur: When does Genocide become Genocide’ (2005) 2 Loy.U.Chi.Intl.L.Rev.153,154 []
  6. David L. Nersessian, ‘The Razor’s Edge: Defining and Protecting Human Groups Under the Genocide Convention’ (2003) 36 Cornell Int’l L.J. 293, 298-99 []
  7. Johan D. Van der Vyver, ‘The International Criminal Court and the Concept of Mens Rea in International Criminal La’w (2004) 12 U. Miami Int’l & Comp. L. Rev. 57, 71 []
  8. Attorney-General of the Govt. of Israel v. Eichmann, Dist. Ct. Jerusalem, (1968) 36 ILR 5 decided on 11 Dec. 1961 http://www.ess.uwe.ac.uk/genocide/Eichmann_Index.htm accessed 12 December 2010 []
  9. The Prosecutor v. Clement Kayishema and Obed Ruzindana, Case No. ICTR-95-I-T, 21 May 1999 []
  10. Patricia M. Wald, ‘Genocide and Crimes against Humanity’ (2007) 6 Wash.U.Global.Stud.L.R.621, 627 []
  11. Claire de Than & Edwin Shorts, International Criminal Law and Human Rights (1st edn Sweet & Maxwell, London 2003) 73 []
  12. Whitaker Report on Genocide, 1985 http://www.preventgenocide.org/prevent/UNdocs/whitaker accessed 10 December 2010 []
  13. Para 29 of the Whitaker Report on Genocide, 1985 http://www.preventgenocide.org/prevent/UNdocs/whitaker accessed 10 December 2010 []
  14. David L. Nersessian, ‘The Razor’s Edge: Defining and Protecting Human Groups Under the Genocide Convention’ (2003) 36 Cornell Int’l L.J. 293, 319 []
  15. The Prosecutor v. Goran Jelisic, Case No. IT-95-10-T, [81] []
  16. The Prosecutor v. Clement Kayishema and Obed Ruzindana, Case No. ICTR-95-I-T, 21 May 1999, 97 []
  17. The Prosecutor v. Goran Jelisic, Case No. IT-95-10-T, [82] []
  18. Prosecutor v. Sikirica Case No. IT-95-8-1 (ICTY Trial Chamber Sept. 3, 2001), <www.un.org/icty> accessed 13 December 2010 []
  19. David L. Nersessian, ‘The Contours of Genocidal Intent: Troubling Jurisprudence from the International Criminal Tribunals’ (2002) 37 Tex. Int’l L.J. 231, 266 []
  20. Nina H.B. Jorgensen, ‘The Definition of Genocide: Joining the Dots in the light of recent practice’ (2001) 1IntlCrimLRev285, 292 []
  21. Prosecutor v. Jean Paul Akayesu Case No. ICTR-96-4-T, 2d September 1998 [544] []
  22. Johan D. Van der Vyver, ‘The International Criminal Court and the Concept of Mens Rea in International Criminal La’w (2004) 12 U. Miami Int’l & Comp. L. Rev. 57, 86 []
  23. Daniel M. Greenfield, ‘The Crime Of Complicity In Genocide: How The International Criminal Tribunals For Rwanda And Yugoslavia Got It Wrong, And Why It Matters’ (2007) 98 J. Crim. L. & Criminology 921, 935, 940 []
  24. P.45 of Draft Code of Crimes against the Peace and Security of Mankind,  Titles and texts of Articles adopted by the International Law Commission at its forty-eighth session <http://untreaty.un.org/ilc/documentation/english/a_cn4_l532.pdf> accessed 13 December 2010 []
  25. David L. Nersessian, ‘The Razor’s Edge: Defining and Protecting Human Groups Under the Genocide Convention’ (2003) 36 Cornell Int’l L.J. 293, 316 []
  26. The Prosecutor v. Jean Paul Akayesu Case No. ICTR-96-4-T, 2d September 1998 [729] []
  27. Daniel M. Greenfield, ‘The Crime Of Complicity In Genocide: How The International Criminal Tribunals For Rwanda And Yugoslavia Got It Wrong, And Why It Matters’ (2007) 98 J. Crim. L. & Criminology 921, 927; the author terms the former mens rea the specific intent with specific motive nexus and the latter the specific intent without specific motive nexus. According to the other the genocide Convention as well as the statutes of the ICTR and ICTY provides provision to convict two distinct classes of criminals, those who plans genocide but doesn’t not kill and the ones who do not plan but genocide is a foreseeable result []
  28. Michael G. Karnavas, ‘Prosecutor v. Vidoje Blagojevic, Dragan Jokic, Case No. IT-02-60-T, Trial Judgment, 17 January 2005’ (2005) 5 Int’l Crim. L. Rev. 609; the author states that there is no lowered liability for complicity in genocide as that notion has been created by judicial decisions and not by the statute. []
  29. Johan D. van der Vyver, ‘Prosecution And Punishment Of The Crime Of Genocide’ (1999) 23 Fordham Int’l L.J. 286, 313 []
  30. Prosecutor v. Vidoje Blagojevic, Dragan Jokic Case No. IT-02-60-T, Trial Judgment, 17 January 2005 []
  31. Prosecutor v. Georges Ruggiu Case No. ICTR-97-32-I, 1st June 2000 []
  32. Kriangsak Kittichaisaree, International Criminal Law (1st ed. 2001, OUP New York) 75 []
  33. David L. Nersessian, ‘The Contours of Genocidal Intent: Troubling Jurisprudence from the International Criminal Tribunals’ (2002) 37 Tex. Int’l L.J. 231, 271 []
  34. Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur to the Secretary-General, Pursuant to Security Council resolution 1564 (2004) of 18 September 2004, Annex to U.N. Doc. S/2005/60, 1 February 2005 []
  35. Claus Kreb, ‘The Crime of Genocide under International Law’ (2006) 6 Int’l Crim. L. Rev. 461, 493 []
  36. Claus Kreb, ‘The Crime of Genocide under International Law’ (2006) 6 Int’l Crim. L. Rev. 461, 497 []
  37. The Prosecutor v. Goran Jelisic, Case No. IT-95-10-T, [79] []
  38. The Prosecutor v. Goran Jelisic, Case No. IT-95-10-T, [86] []
  39. Kriangsak Kittichaisaree, International Criminal Law (1st edn OUP, New York 2001) 74 []
  40. Available at <http://www.icc-cpi.int/NR/rdonlyres/EA9AEFF7-5752-4F84-BE94 0A655EB30E16/0/Rome_Statute_English.pdf> accessed 14 February 2010 []
  41. Johan D. Van der Vyver, ‘The International Criminal Court and the Concept of Mens Rea in International Criminal La’w (2004) 12 U. Miami Int’l & Comp. L. Rev. 57, 84 []
  42. The Prosecutor v. Clement Kayishema and Obed Ruzindana Case No. ICTR-95-I-T, 21 May 1999, 97 [91] []
  43. The Prosecutor v. Clement Kayishema and Obed Ruzindana Case No. ICTR-95-I-T, 21 May 1999, 97 [161] []
  44. David L. Nersessian, ‘The Contours of Genocidal Intent: Troubling Jurisprudence from the International Criminal Tribunals’ (2002) 37 Tex. Int’l L.J. 231, 268 []
  45. The Prosecutor v. Goran Jelisic, Case No. IT-95-10-T [48] []
  46. Stylianos Malliaris, ‘Assessing the ICTY Jurisprudence in Defining the Elements of the Crime of Genocide: The Need for a ‘Plan’’  (2009) 5 Rev. Int’l L. & Pol. 105, 109 []
  47. Stylianos Malliaris, ‘Assessing the ICTY Jurisprudence in Defining the Elements of the Crime of Genocide: The Need for a ‘Plan’’ (2009) 5 Rev. Int’l L. & Pol. 105, 113; the author also states that the ICTY should make a consistent approach rather than applying inconsistent standards on the issue of the requirements of a plan for the crime of genocide after analyzing the prosecutor’s application in ‘Prosecutor v. Omar Hassan Ahmad Al Bashir’, Case No. ICC-02/05, 14 July 2008 []
  48. Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Serbia and Montenegro, 2007 I.C.I. 70 (26 February). []
  49. Claire de Than & Edwin Shorts, International Criminal Law and Human Rights (1st edn Sweet & Maxwell, London 2003) 75 []
  50. Kriangsak Kittichaisaree, International Criminal Law (1st edn OUP, New York 2001) 77 []
  51. Draft Convention on the Crime of Genocide prepared by the S.G. of the U.N. in pursuance of the resolution of the ECOSOC dated 28th March 1947 <http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=E/447>  accessed 13 December 2010 []
  52. Whitaker Report on Genocide, 1985 http://www.preventgenocide.org/prevent/UNdocs/whitaker accessed 10 December 2010 []
  53. Para 39 of the Whitaker Report on Genocide, 1985 http://www.preventgenocide.org/prevent/UNdocs/whitaker accessed 10 December 2010 []
  54. Steven R. Ratner & Jason S. Abrams, Accountability for Human Rights Atrocities in International Law: Beyond the Nuremburg Legacy (1st edn, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1997) 35 []
  55. The Prosecutor v. Semanza ICTR-90-27-T, 15th May 2003 []
  56. The Prosecutor v. Goran Jelisic, Case No. IT-95-10-T[101] []
  57. The Prosecutor v. Clement Kayishema and Obed Ruzindana Case No. ICTR-95-I-T, 21 May 1999, 97 [94, 159] []
  58. David L. Nersessian, ‘The Razor’s Edge: Defining and Protecting Human Groups Under the Genocide Convention’ (2003) 36 Cornell Int’l L.J. 293, 314-15 []
  59. Nina H.B. Jorgensen, ‘The Definition of Genocide: Joining the Dots in the light of recent practice’ (2001) 1IntlCrimLRev285, 298 []
  60. Attorney-General of the Govt. of Israel v. Eichmann, Dist. Ct. Jerusalem, (1968) 36 ILR 5 decided on 11 Dec. 1961 http://www.ess.uwe.ac.uk/genocide/Eichmann_Index.htm accessed 12 December 2010 []

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