Existence and Effect of International Conventions dealing with Sustainable development With special reference to Kyoto Protocol
Shashank Sahay, Research Associate
International Law is defined as the law governing sovereign countries. It has also been called the law for the world community, since world today comprises of the community of mankind living in interdependent world society. Enormous changes in global communication, travel, migration of people and interdependent and liberal economic system has given a new dimension to the world society1. The UN Declaration of Human Environment 1972 and subsequent declarations like the World Charter for Nature 1982, Rio Declaration on Environment 1992 and the Johannesburg Declaration 2002 on Sustainable Development provide the idea and program for the world order for man’s attitude nature and economic development. Environment protection and sustainable development are goals of modern economic philosophy. India has incorporated most of international environment laws contained in the 1972 UN Declaration on Human Environment in Environment Protection Act 1986 and Environment Protection Rules, 1986. Thereby it seems economic growth with sustainable development seems the goal of modern environmental law2.
Agenda 21, U.N. Conference in Environment and Development
At Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 3- 14 June 1992 Agenda 21 was adopted which addresses the burning problem of today’s world. The agenda 21 contains development and environmental objectives for purpose of substantial development. In order to cover incremental costs for the actions the developing countries have to undertake to deal with global environmental problems and to speed up works on sustainable development.
International Commitments under Agenda 21 of U.N. Conference on Environmental and Development held in June 1992
The Following subject concerns bilateral, multilateral and universal treaty :-
i. Further development of international law relating to sustainable development giving proper balance between environment and developmental;
ii. The need for framing international instruments by taking into consideration the special needs for developing countries;
iii. The international instrument to regulate and promote the global participation in the matter of environment and economic trade/ development;
iv. Technical assistance to the developing countries, with the view to entrance its legislative capabilities
v. Codification of international Law to accelerate sustainable development, and setting up of International Law Commission3.
Points to remember
Special Objectives under Agenda 21
There are special objectives under Agenda 21 of U.N Conference on Environment and Development held at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. These are as follows:-
i. Address and discuss the difficulties which prevent environmental and economic development.;
ii. The whole world is summoned to set priorities for future law making on sustainable development at global, regional and national levels;
iii. Effective participation of all countries in respect of international sustainable development programs;
iv. Gradual development of international law, instruments, negotiations and agreements to match the international standards;
v. Ensure transparency in the use of trade measures related to environment ;
vi. Ensure effective and prompt review system regarding international agreement, negotiations concerning the developing countries;
vii. Effective institution for implementation of unilateral, bilateral and multilateral agreements relating to trade and environment;
- Effective settlements of disputes
ix. Promote and encourage the General Agreement on Trade and Tariff (GATT) and United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCAD).
It is submitted that the Agenda 21 of U.N. Conference on Environment and Development, 1992 insist upon a new global partnership, effective participation of the developing countries, codification of the International law, so that sustainable development can be achieved. Until, the International Cooperation and assistance rendered by the developed countries, the problems of downtrodden countries withhold the committed sustainable development4.
This English Conference of the Parties Third Session Kyoto was held from 1st to 10th December, 1997. The parties to this protocol were parties to the United Nations Framework convention on Climate Change. In pursuit of ultimate objective of the convention as stated in its article 2, recalling the provisions of the conventions, being guided by Article 3 of the Convention pursuant to Berlin mandate adopted various measures in dealing with the current environmental problems ranging from its provisions as stated in Article 1 to Article 27 that includes Quantified Emission Limitation, Parties to control Emissions, Jointly fulfillment of commitments, Estimation of Emission System, Submission of Annual Information, Expert Body to consider implementation of measures, Developed Countries to Provide assistance, etc5.
Kyoto Protocol Effect
The Kyoto Protocol, the world’s most far reaching environmental treaty took effect on 16th February. 2005 with 34 industrial countries legally bound to slash pollution causing global warming. Notably, the treaty took effect at midnight at U.N headquarters in New York. The Treaty required industrial countries as a whole to cut carbon- di- oxide gas emissions by 5.2% before 2012 compared with their 1990 levels, with targets set individually for each nation. Australia is the only major industrial country which has rejected Kyoto. Australia and Unites States together amount for about 30% of global green house gas pollution. After U.S withdrawal, Kyoto could not come into effect until ratification in 2004 by Russia which ensured that an adequate percentage of industrialized nation’s pollution produce were on board.
Meanwhile, U.N Environment Program warned that the effects of climate change may lead to Earth spinning out of control and urged immediate steps to halt global warming6.
Kyoto Protocol Fact File
The salient features of Kyoto Protocol are as follows:-
i. It legally commits industrialized countries which have signed and ratified it to trim their output of six green house gases
ii. The green house gases are carbon dioxide, by product of burning oil, gas and coal, methane Nitrous Oxide, Hydrofluoro carbons, Perfluoro carbons and Sulphur Hexafluoride.
iii. The Protocol’s framework was adopted on 12th December, 1997 in Kyoto by 159 countries, members of the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
iv. After Kyoto Protocol which would end in 2012, negotiations would begin under the UNFCCC on the post 2012 pact. Parties will be under pressure to make far deeper cuts, to include China and India in the targeted reductions, to carry coal the U.S back in the multilateral fold7.
Sustainable Development from Stockholm to Rio de Janeiro to Johannesburg
In 1972 at Stockholm Conference the representatives of the citizens of the world agreed on the urgent need to respond to the problems of environmental deterioration. Then in 1992, at United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro, the world community agreed that the protection of environment and social and economic are fundamental to sustainable development based on the Rio Principles. To achieve such development, the summit adopted the global program. Agenda 21 and the Rio Declaration, to which the world community reaffirms its commitment. The Rio Summit was regarded as a significant milestone that set a new agenda for sustainable development.
It is to be noted that between Rio de Janeiro and Johannesburg the world community witnessed a number of summits under the banner of the United Nations including Monterrey Conference on Finance for development as well as Doha Ministerial Conference.
At the Johannesburg meet the world achieved much in bringing together a rich tapestry of people and views in a constructive search for a common path towards a world that respects and implements the vision of sustainable development. At the Johannesburg Summit it was also affirmed that though we have achieved significant progress towards a global consensus and partnership amongst all the people of our planet, but the sustainable development in true sense is yet to be achieved8.
Climate Change – Rich Countries preach but don’t practice
According to the official reports rich countries continue to pollute more than ever, and this is evident from the greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe) figures released by the UN Framework on climate change. Developed Countries emitted 8-12% more GHGe in 2007 than in 1990, the base year for calculating emissions according to the Kyoto Protocol, despite many of them had agreed to cut back emissions under the Kyoto protocol’s mandate. The US’s CO2 emissions have increased by 20% in 17 years. Yet, India with its track record of comparatively less pollution is a target of rich countries. It is accused of aggravating climate change as an emerging economy9.
Given this depressing atmosphere for multilateral negotiations on climate change, India and China have demonstrated their intention to take action on their own, by signing a memorandum of understanding for greater co operation and sharing of know-how to tackle global warming and related environmental issues. These columns have talked about the importance of opening many fronts, especially bilateral and regional – in order to deal with climate change issues in the best possible way. The U.N mooted multilateral talks among 192 countries that are signatories to the framework convention on climate change have their place in creating an opportunity for global leaders to meet and thrash out solutions and generate multinational debate and discussion among legislators, civil society groups and the media. However, despite creating worldwide awareness and vocal impact on the ground is almost zero, even negative as is seen from the record of developed countries.
In a short run, bilateral talks and agreements may have greater potential to achieve targets since attention is given to specifics and it is possible to institute mechanism for stock taking and monitoring with its dirty coal plants and increasing number of usage of vehicles leading to air pollution. China in the recent time has had to grapple with serious air pollution. One of the ways that it is trying to meet the challenge is through clean technology solution and it is a good platform to flag of India- China Cooperation on this front.
Both India and China have Research and Development (R & D) as well as manufacturing expertise, and if they cut back on emissions as well as other forms of pollution it would be a substantial contribution to the well being of their populations respectively. Plenty could be achieved by sharing tools and strategies and learning from each other’s experiences.
- Paper presented at workshop on “Emerging Role of International Law” 8-9 January 2005 at Army Institute of Law, Mohali Co sponsored by Indian Society of International Law. [↩]
- Prof. S Bhatt, International Environmental Law, A.P.H. Publishing Corporation, p. 25-26 [↩]
- Available at http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/Agenda21.pdf [↩]
- Dr. S.C. Tripathi, Environmental Law, Central Law Publication, p. 464 [↩]
- Ibid pg 469 [↩]
- Refer Hindustan Times, daily Newspaper dt. 17/2/2005 [↩]
- Dr. S.C. Tripathi, Environmental Law, Central Law Publication, p. 470 [↩]
- Ibid [↩]
- Refer English Daily, “Times of India”, dt. 30/10/2009 [↩]