Author: Aniruddha Jain
“Advertising may be described as the science of arresting human intelligence long enough to get money from it”1- Stephen Leacock.
Advertising is a form of communication used to encourage or persuade an audience to continue or take some new action. The communication can be made either through mass media or through new media. The mass media includes newspapers, television, magazines, television commercials, radio advertising and the new media includes blogs, websites or text messages2.The rationale behind advertising is to update the consumers regarding a particular product and its availability in the market. One of the most important objectives of advertising is to generate demand for new products by attracting the interests of public towards it. In reality, the eventual purpose of any commercial organization behind advertising is to aggrandize its profitability and this can be made feasible only when the company allure more and more sales. This helps them to adorn the visibility of the products and services among the consumers. Advertisements are intended to enhance the awareness among the customers.
Through the alluring advertisements the business organizations erect an image which they desire of creating in the minds of the consumers3. Consequently, in order to attract more and more customers the companies squander a gigantic sum of their budgets on advertising and promotional strategies. The greatest concern which arises here is that the proportion of budget spent by an advertiser on the product’s advertisement is additional to the distribution price of the product. Therefore, it is the customer who has to pay huge amounts for the products being advertised. Advertisements are constructive only until they serve the reason for which they are shaped i.e. to create awareness among the public regarding a new or an existing product. Since advertisements are basically made to promote a product or a service, one does not see any exaggeration in the way they extol the virtues of the product. But when it goes beyond that and deliberately utters a falsehood or tries to misrepresent facts thereby misleading the consumers, then it becomes objectionable4. This article provides an insight to the concept of ‘misleading advertising’, statutory position in India and its impact on Indian consumers. It further discusses the remedies which can be efficient in eliminating such practices from India.
Misleading advertisements are those advertisements that deceive or are likely to deceive anyone who sees it. Misleading advertising may affect consumer’s choices regarding what they buy. It’s worth bearing in mind that it may be an offence for a trader to advertise goods or services if it is likely to delude and therefore cause loss, damage or injury to the consumer.
An advertisement is misleading if it creates increases or exploits a false belief about expected product performance5. The following are some examples of how advertisements can be misleading:
- The conditions of delivery of the goods or services diverge to that advertised. (Example: ‘free delivery’ actually involves a fee or charge)
- Claims made about the characteristics of goods and services consisting a fake declaration of fact. (Example: A product weighs 800g instead of 1 Kg)
- The attributes of the advertiser, the advertiser’s identity etc. are exhibited falsely. (Example: A made in India labeled product actually a product which is Made in China)
- The price or manner, in which the price is calculated, is altered. (Example: Goods are not offered at sale prices, but advertised as such)
- Advertisements can be illusory in other ways as well. For example, if the advertisement conceals some important facts. (Example: ‘60% Discount on everything’ – really only applies to certain things).
Advertisements are also considered misleading if they create a false impression even if everything stated in the advertisement may be literally true. Misleading advertising occurs when a claim about a product or service is materially false or misleading, in an attempt to persuade the consumer to buy it. Misleading advertisements usually make claims which can be generally categorized as puffery claims, data based claims and testimonial claims. While puffery claims are made without implying scientific bases for it, data based claims are simply that a test / study/ count or some kind of scientific effort has been made to produce the basis for the claim. Using name, signature, photograph etc makes false testimonial claims6.
A. Statutory Framework:
The objective of regulating misleading advertising(through laws) is to ensure that advertisements do not distort the facts about the product and mislead the buyer through subtle implications, omissions, and false statements about the quality, quantity, features or other characteristics of the product or any service accompanying the product, e.g., repair and maintenance7. Some of statutes which are responsible for regulating the misleading advertisements are:-
1. Constitution Of India:-
Even though there is no special provision for regulating advertisement policy in the Constitution of India, which should be adopted by press or media, the Supreme Court has given guidelines for the same through a series of Judgments Most significant decisions in this context are is Tata Press Ltd. v. Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Ltd.8The constitution of India explicitly protects freedom of speech and expression in Article 19 (1) (a). The Supreme Court of India in Tata Press Ltd. v. Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Ltd. held advertisements to be commercial free speech subject to certain reasonable restrictions9. The limitations include restriction on manipulative advertising as well. The Hon’ble apex court in the same judgment remarked “it is expected that by way of advertisement or promotion of its services, the subscriber should not be misled”.
2. Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Act, 1969
There are several laws, regulations and codes to tackle false and misleading advertisements. But one law that really made an impact in the eighties and the nineties was the monopolies and restrictive trade practices Act. In the year 1984 the government brought through, an amendment, “unfair trade practices” under the purview of Monopolies and trade practice commission10. Section 36 A of the MRTP Act defines an unfair trade practice. Section 36B empowers the commission to inquire into any of the unfair trade practices. Although this act has been repealed now, a similar definition of the UTP can be found in the consumer protection act,1986
3. The Consumer Protection Act,1986
The consumer protection act, 1986 under section 2 (1)(r) describes unfair trade practices, which specifically under sub-sections 2 (1)(r) cl. vi and 2 (1) (r) cl. ix include the acts which can be called as misleading advertisements and claims. Section 2 (1)(r) cl. vi describes any act(s) aimed at “making a false or misleading representation concerning the need for, or the usefulness of, any goods or services” as one of the restrictive trade practices. Further Section 2 (1)(r)ix prohibits any act that “materially misleads the public concerning the price at which a product or like products or goods or services, have been or are, ordinarily sold or provided, and, for this purpose, are presentation as to price shall be deemed to refer to the price at which the product or goods or services has or have been sold by sellers or provided by suppliers generally in the relevant market unless it is clearly the price at which the product has been sold or services have been provided by the person by whom or on whose behalf the representation is made.”. Section 2 (1)(r) x prohibits any misleading claims and advertisements aimed at disparaging goods, services and trade of another person.
4. The Trademarks act,1999
A coherent depiction of the manipulative advertising can be found in the Trademarks act, 1999. Section 2(1) Clause (i) of the Trademarks act, 1999 define ‘False Trade deceptions’. False and misleading advertisements may also attract regulatory measures provided in the Trade Marks Act, 1999. As provided in Section 103 of the Act, any person who (1) falsifies any trademark or (2) falsely applies to goods or services any trademark, or (3) applies any false trade description to goods or services, shall be punishable with imprisonment and fine. Moreover, under Section 107 of that Act, making of false representation of a trademark as registered shall be an offence, punishable with imprisonment and/or fine11.
5. The Drugs and Magic Remedies(Objectionable Advertisements)Act, 1954
This act Specifies two kinds of offences: advertising of drugs and diseases specified in the act, or rules and advertisements that are misleading about the nature, cure and any other material particular of the drug so advertised12.
While Section 3 of the act prohibits advertisements of certain drugs for treatment of certain diseases and disorders, Section 4 prohibits misleading advertisement relating to drugs. Section 4 which is exceptionally significant to the concept of misleading advertisements states “Subject to the provisions of this Act, no person shall take any part in the publication of any advertisement relating to a drug if the advertisement contains any matter which
- Directly or indirectly gives a false impression regarding the true character of the drug; or
- Makes a false claim for the drug; or
- Is otherwise false or misleading in any material particular”.
6. Securities and Exchange Board of India Regulations, 2003
The Securities and Exchange Board of India (Prohibition of fraudulent and unfair trade practices relating to securities market) Regulations, 2003 under Section 4(2) Clauses (a), (k) & (r) prohibits misleading and manipulative advertisement. The said clauses prohibit the following:-
- Indulging in an act which creates false or misleading appearance of trading in the securities market;
- An advertisement that is misleading or that contains information in a distorted manner and which may influence the decision of the investors;
- Planting false or misleading news which may induce sale or purchase of Securities.
The IRDA (Insurance Advertisements) Regulations, 2000
The IRDA (Insurance Advertisements) Regulations, 2000, seeks to regulate and control every insurance advertisement issued by the insurer, intermediary or insurance agent. For this purpose, every insurer, intermediary or insurance agent is required to establish and maintain a system of control over the content, form and method of dissemination of all advertisements concerning its policies and such advertisement should be filed with the Authority as soon as it is first issued. An advertisement issued by an insurer should not fall in the category of an unfair or misleading advertisement. A precise definition of the ‘unfair or misleading advertisement’ is given under section 2(d).
All the above laws are primarily responsible for quality control and ensuring that credulous consumers are not swindled. Besides these some statutes like The Cable television network act, 1995 The infant milk substitute, feeding bottles and infant Foods act, 1992(including the amendment act, 2002), The food safety and standards act, 2006 etc. also contains certain provisions related to misleading advertising and prescribes the mechanism to regulate them as well.
Institutional Framework :-
Advertising standards council of India
The ASCI Code aims to protect the legitimate interests of the consumers by regulating patently false, misleading, and objectionable advertisements broadcast on television, radio, and internet by advertisers, media, and advertising agencies13. The first and foremost code of ASCI for self regulation aims to “ensure the truthfulness and honesty of representation and claims made by advertisements and to safeguard against misleading advertisements”
During 1985 prominent members connected with all aspects of advertising came together and decided to accept global best practices in the field of ‘Self Regulation in Advertising’14. It was then the Advertising Standards Council of India (“ASCI”), a non statutory tribunal, was established that created a self regulatory mechanism of ensuring ethical advertising practices. Before the establishment of the ASCI the courts were responsible to adjudicate upon these matters. But then gradually, the ASCI Code received huge recognition from the advertising industry. The warnings issued by ASCI to the advertisers against the misleading advertisements were gradually being accepted by the advertisers and the advertisements were actually stopped being aired or were modified significantly to comply with the prescribed ASCI Code15. ASCI receives and processes complaints against advertisements, from a cross section of consumers, the general public and industry, in the interest of all those who rely on advertising as a commercial communication, and this covers individuals, practitioners in advertising, advertiser firms, media, advertisement agencies, and ancillary services connected with advertising. ASCI communicate with the advertiser when a complaint is upheld and it is noteworthy that in about 90% the cases where the complaint is upheld, the ads are either modified or withdrawn16.
Apart from the self regulatory organization ASCI, The Reserve Bank of India, Medical Council of India, Insurance regulatory Development authority, Telecom regulatory authority of India and Securities Board exchange of India are also empowered to exercise control over the misleading advertisements in their respective domains.
Impact On consumers
“Advertising is essentially a thing to induce consumption to make people buy thing they do not want”17. – Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru
The Advertisements have a large impact on consumer. They are made to propagate awareness and hence should not mislead the consumer. The advertisement should bring precisely the use and motive of the product but the manufacturers or traders should not look for their gain or profits. In India, due to severe sanctions on advertising certain products like alcohol, tobacco products, medicines and baby food has led to the emergence of a whole genre of misleading / surrogate advertising18. The influence of such advertisements on consumer choice is undeniable. And it’s this fact that makes it imperative that advertisements be fair and truthful. Misleading and false advertisements are not just unethical; they distort competition and of course, consumer choice. False and misleading advertisements in fact violate several basic rights of consumers: the right to information, the right to choice, the right to be protected against unsafe goods and services as well as unfair trade practices19.
Advertising costs companies lots of money and even after proper planning and implementation, there are hidden money involved, which burns our pockets deep. When we usually buy a product, we don’t just pay for the product. There are lots of expenses already included with it like packaging, the development, manufacturing, technological expense, machinery, etc. along with all these we also pay for advertising expenses as well. Some organizations go over board to sell their products making manipulative claims to the customers but as per the law it is mandatory for them to submit statistical data in order to prove their claims. Recently, a complaint was filed in ASCI against Hindustan Unilever Ltd (Dove Hair Fall Rescue shampoo) The advertisement was aired on various channels claiming “No Hair Fall No Damage” Further, the word ‘Super’ in the advertisement represented – “No hair breakage and split ends( according to the sampling based on lab test) when regularly used Dove Shampoo”. It was contended in the complaint that this claim needs to be substantiated with independent technical data. The word ‘Super’ does not state the source of the study and nor does it state the date on which the said study was conducted. The word ‘Super’ speaks only of sampling based on lab test which is not adequate to make such a technical claim. The word ‘Super’ in the advertisement was blurred and illegible from a consumer point of view. It was held by the ASCI commission that the claim, “No Hair Fall No Damage”, was an absolute claim which was not mitigated by the word super. Claim was not substantiated and was tagged ‘misleading’. The advertisement was hence withdrawn20. Thus, being factually incorrect such a statement could have attracted the consumers to buy the product subsequently causing them wrongful losses.
The most recent Nirmal Baba’s case is an epitome in the context of the topic .In a recent petition filed in the Delhi High court it was alleged by the petitioner that Nirmal Baba has been advertising in different electronic and print media claiming to give ‘magical treatment’ while misleading the common man by claiming himself to a ‘representative of god’. It said that such advertisement in the media given by the Baba is contrary to the provisions of the Drug and Magic Remedies Objectionable Advertisement Act, 1954.21.
It is found, nowadays that many of the cosmetic companies make misleading claims regarding their products in order to promote their sales. There are certainly some claims that are more egregious than others. The advertisements by the coaching classes and educational institutes are also manipulative to a very large extent. Being attracted by such misleading claims, the gullible students pay a large amount of fees and realize it very late that they are left with nothing. On failure some students suffer from deep mental trauma and prefer to end their life. The Consumer Complaints Council (CCC), in June 2011 received a complaint against Career Launcher, a prominent institute for the Law entrance exams (CLAT and AILET). Career Launcher claimed to have “Top 20/20 AIR in CLAT and Top 20/20 AIR in NLU, Delhi” This implied that students who took CLAT and AILET and achieved All India Rank (1 to 20) were CL students. In this advertisement, claims were not supported and substantiated with reliable data or evidence. The CCC concluded that pending the validation of the data by independent auditors, the claims mentioned in the advertisement and cited in the complaint are misleading22.
Children are in the most vulnerable age group which is affected by the misleading advertising. Actually, the children lack the perceptual defense possessed by the adults and cannot objectively evaluate advertisements; they are more susceptible to deception. Television advertising corrupts children by instilling values that are not acceptable to the society and helps in the development of conflicting relationship between the children and their parents23. As soon as children see some great persuading advertisement, they run to their parents to purchase them the item. Whether it’s useful to them or no, they get so attached with attractive imagination that they get adamant on buying them. Junk food items, which are heavily promoted, may lead to child obesity in children. They keep craving for such foods all the time, which are more fatty and sugary from health perspective24.
Advertising creates artificial needs. Advertisements motivate and persuade consumers to buy the things that are not needed even. Advertising should not persuade by playing with consumers emotions, anxieties, psychological needs & desires such as status, self esteem, attractiveness & others but should just provide information useful in making purchase decisions such as price, performance & other objective criteria. Persuasive advertising foster discontent among consumers & encourage them to purchase products & services to solve deeper problems. Misleading advertising surrounds consumers with the images of good life and convinces how the materialistic possessions lead to happiness in life25.
Judicial Behavior in India
In Colgate-Palmolive (India) Limited vs. Anchor Health & Beauty Care Private Ltd26, the issue involved was whether a person can be injuncted from making any false, misleading or disparaging representations or from making any slanderous statements in showing, screening, exhibiting or telecasting commercial/advertisements with respect to products of any other person. Colgate-Palmolive approached the court aggrieved by the use of the words “ONLY” and “FIRST” in the advertisement of the Anchor Health. The objection regarding the advertisement was the claim by Anchor that their’s was the “ONLY” toothpaste containing all the 3 ingredients, calcium, Fluoride, Triclosan. The Second objection was the use of the word “FIRST” all round protection toothpaste. The applicants contented that even their products contained all these products. The claims made by Anchor were contented to be misleading .The court after detailed analysis of various case laws and provisions came to the final conclusion that the reasons behind the use of the words “ONLY” and “FIRST” were not satisfactory. The advertisement usually gives out an impression that Anchor is the only toothpaste containing all the three ingredients. Similarly, the use of word “FIRST” is not in relation to the slogan “all round protection” as it is indented to project. The respondent has to bring out a scientific base for such claims and thus, the words “ONLY” and “FIRST” fall under the dragnets of Section 2(1) (r) of the Unfair Trade Practices contained in The Consumer Protection Act, 1986 and could create an impression in the minds of the consumer that Anchor is the best toothpaste in the market . In this light, Anchor was restrained from using the offending words in the advertisement.
In M/s. Cox & Kings (I) Pvt. Ltd. vs. Mr. Joseph A. Fernandez & Others27, the Respondents Mr. and Mrs. Fernandez had booked for a tour from Bangalore to Singapore-Malaysia and back with Cox & Kings. The advertisement displayed the duration of the tour as “Two nights /three days cruise”. But in the confirmation voucher given to the Respondents timings were mentioned as “Leave Singapore at 23.59 hours on 17.4.2002 and arrive at Singapore on 19.4.2002.” This actually meant that the trip is originally for two nights and one and a half days whereas it was advertised as 2 nights/3 days Cruise. Therefore, there was a shortage of one and a half days cruise service according to the Complainants. The Hon. District Court ordered Cox & Kings to pay Rs.50, 000 as compensation. The appeal by the tour operator was dismissed by the Karnataka State Commission which however reduced the compensation to Rs.25, 000/- with 25% interest p.a. The matter then reached to the apex consumer court. The court found that the state forum took a lenient view by reducing the amount to half and restored the order of the District Commission. In courts view, this practice by the Petitioner was not only a case of misrepresentation through misleading advertisement but also an unfair trade practice in the eyes of Consumer Protection Act.
In the case of Bhupesh Khurana vs Buddha Parishad28 , the Buddhist Mission Dental College advertised in National newspaper for admission in BDS Course. The said advertisement claimed that the college was affiliated to Magadh University, Bodh Gaya and was recognized by the Dental Council of India. The Complainants in good faith accepted the information of the Opposite Party as an authentic and correct and sought admission in the BDS course and paid a substantial amount as demanded by College for admission. Later on it was revealed by the students that the college was neither affiliated to none of the claimed organizations and as a result of which unable to hold the annual examinations. Moreover, there was no regular qualified teaching staff to teach the students and laboratory was ill equipped and there were no instruments and other articles of the laboratory. Fees are paid for services to be rendered by way of imparting education by the educational institutions. The Complainants had hired the services of the Respondent for consideration so they are consumers as defined in the Consumer Protection Act. The Supreme Court said that this case comes under the meaning of deficiency in Consumer Protection Act .Thus the court, in its judgment directed the College to refund the admission expenses paid by the injured parties at the time of admission with interest calculated at the rate of 12% p.a. from the date of receipt of the amount till date of payment and also to pay Rs.20,000/- to each of the Complainants by way of compensation for the expenses defrayed on purchase of books, mess expense, hostel expenses for two years and for the loss of two valuable academic years29.
Combating Misleading Advertising
Role of the consumers in reducing the instances of misleading advertising is most important. The consumers are expected not to remain gullible. Customers should take their time to compare product features and prices before making a decision to purchase it. Generally, there is more than one choice per product in the marketplace, and it’s our duty to determine which one will work best for our respective purposes. They should not get tempted by the discounts and other deceptive offers. Whenever they come across an Advertisement which they consider misleading or offensive, they should write to The Advertising Standards Council of India. ASCI promises them that even a single complaint alleging that an advertisement is misleading or offensive is usually enough to require the Advertiser to correct the Advertisement. Further,the ministry of consumer affairs, with the sole objective of empowering consumers, has implemented a pioneering and intensive multimedia campaign, “Jago Grahak Jago (Wake up Consumer)” to create consumer awareness in the country.
The problem of misleading ads continues to be serious in the country despite several legislations like the Food Safety and Standards Act, Consumer Protection Act and the Drugs and Cosmetic Act. Therefore, need for a single codified legislation empowered to regulate all types of misleading advertising is an important need of the hour. Concerned over the advertisements that are misleading, the government of India is mulling the idea to create an effective law to stop companies from giving such advertisements30.
Revival of the MRTP commission with the sole purpose of preventing false and misleading advertisements can prove to be another landmark step31.
Further, as clear from the precedents that courts and consumer tribunals have been playing an effective role in imparting justice to the aggrieved parties. The consumers are advised not to remain quiet if they happen to come across any injustice and approach the court and tribunals for the redressal of their grievances
Whereas on one side advertisements are used for a campaigning against the ills in the society (eg. Cancer, AIDS, smoking, malnutrition, degrading tourism industry etc.) the same are being used in the wrong way for misleading the consumers. As has already been mentioned about the plethora of laws that have been enacted to get rid of misleading advertisements and claims, But it cannot be left without stating that none of these legislations has been able to curb this disease and provide a perfect panacea for it’s cure . The most important thing is have better laws in keeping relevance with the contemporary scenario, better enforcement of the legislations, self-regulation by industry, and independent regulator to regulate the misleading advertising. Consumers must create self awareness and exercise their rights against deceitful businessmen indulged in practices of creating surrogate and misleading claims of their products They are expected to bring such cases to the notice of the enforcement agencies, which, in turn, should play the role of a watch-dog of public interest32.
- Stephen Leacock 1869-1944 Garden of folly (1924) ‘The Perfect Salesman’ Oxford Dictionary of Quotations and Proverbs. [↩]
- See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advertising Last accessed on April 3 , 2013 3:17PM [↩]
- See Advertisement Laws of India –it’s time for a uniform legislation available at http://legalonline.blogspot.in/2011/04/advertisement-laws-of-india-its-time.html Last accessed on April 3, 2013 4:08PM [↩]
- See Pushpa Girimaji , Misleading Advertising and consumers, Indian Institute of public administration. Delhi 2006 Pg.3 [↩]
- See J. Edward Russo , Barbara L. Metcalf, Debra Stephens(1981) Identifying Misleading Advertising(The Journal on consumer research) Pg.128 [↩]
- See Mrs. Vaishali Kathuria Billa: Advertising Ethics and Law Page 80, Available at http://www.ddegjust.ac.in/studymaterial/pgdapr/pgdapr-103.pdf Last accessed on April 5,2013 7:36PM [↩]
- See DPS Verma, Regulating Misleading Advertisements: Legal Provisions and Institutional Framework,Vikalpa: The Journal for decision makers Indian Institute of Management Ahmadabad Issue: April 2001Page 51 Available at: http://www.vikalpa.com/pdf/articles/2001/2001_apr_jun_51_57.pdf Last accessed on April 5,2013 8:22 PM [↩]
- AIR (1995) 5 SCC 139. [↩]
- See Amit Datta (2010), Comparative advertising in India- Puff under scrutiny, World Trademark Review Issue : December/January 2010 Page 60. Available at: http://www.worldtrademarkreview.com/issues/article.ashx?g=32a85852-a5d2-4c65-8216-619aaf642086&q=Scrutiny+under+puff#search=%22Scrutiny+under+puff%22 Last accessed on April 6 2013 4:46PM [↩]
- See Pushpa Girimaji , Supra note 4 at pg.12 [↩]
- See DPS Verma. Supra note 7 at Page 54 [↩]
- Refer Health care case laws in India : A reader (2007) Edited by: Mihir desai , Kamayani Bali Mahabal pg.89 Available at http://www.cehat.org/humanrights/caselaws.pdf Last accessed on April 8 ,2013 6:14 PM [↩]
- Refer Regulating Advertising in India , Sunaina Kapoor and Neeraj Dubey PSA 2009 Page 2 Available at www.psalegal.com/pdf/TMT-Bulletin-Issue-III11062009042225PM.pdf Last accessed on April 8 ,2013 7:08 PM [↩]
- Anonymous, Chapter III History and profile of ASCI Pg. 51 Available at :-http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/3434/7/07_chapter%203.pdf Last accessed on April 10,2013 5:29 PM [↩]
- Refer to kapoor and Dubey supra note 13 at Page 2 [↩]
- Supra note 14 at Page 63 [↩]
- See Robin Jeffrey, India’s Newspaper Revolution: Capitalism, Politics and the Indian-Language Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2000 Page 55 [↩]
- See V.G. Rangnath Restrictions on Advertisement in vision of Consumer Page 1 Available at :- http://works.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1010&context=ranganath_vadapalli Last accessed on April 11,2013 2:35PM [↩]
- See Pushpa Girimaji Supra note 10 pg.1 [↩]
- See Campaign India dated Dec 22 2011 , ASCI’s Consumer Complaints Council upholds complaints against 17 ads Available at: http://www.campaignindia.in/Article/285214,asci8217s-consumer-complaints-council-upholds-complaints-against-17-ads.aspx Last accessed on April 11,2013 4:35 PM [↩]
- See Millennium Post dated Tuesday, 28 May 2013 Available at : http://millenniumpost.in/NewsContent.aspx?NID=2078 Last accessed on April 12,2013 4:47PM [↩]
- Supra note 20 [↩]
- See Vaishali Kathria Billa Supra note 6 at Page 361 [↩]
- See Business Mantra, Effects of advertising on children Feb 18, 2010 Available at:-http://www.businessmantra.net/effects-of-advertising-on-children.html Last accessed on April 17 2013 4:47 PM [↩]
- See Vaishali Kathuria Billa Supra note 24 at Page 11 [↩]
- Madras High Court C.S. No. 451 of 2008 [↩]
- N.C.D.R.C.Appeal No:- 366 OF 2005 [↩]
- C.A. no.1135 of 2001 [↩]
- See Pushpa Girimaji Supra note 19 Page 18 [↩]
- Jagran Post dated 15 Feb 2012 Laws against Misleading advertisements soon :KV Thomas http://post.jagran.com/Laws-against-misleading-advertisements-soon-KV-Thomas-1329303970 Last accessed on April 20 2013 8:45 PM [↩]
- See pushpa Girimaji supra note 30 page 30 [↩]
- See DPS verma supra note 11 Pg.57 [↩]